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wall of resistance – union square

Today New Yorkers put down their devices and took to the walls to resist on post its! 

Wall of resistance 1 from CHANDRA BALKARAN on Vimeo.

The wall of resistance 2 from CHANDRA BALKARAN on Vimeo.

The wall of resistance 3 from CHANDRA BALKARAN on Vimeo.

Millenials unhinged in the face of a new president

What I saw today blew my mind out of its darkest corners: droves of millenials descending upon 5 avenue and 34th out of nowhere walking in-between cars and buses, almost on top of cars, causing them to come to an abrupt halt, tourists on tourist buses standing in support yet shock, police lagging behind and not interfering one bit. Millenials, for the first time with no devices stuck to their faces, looking up, heads held high chanting “fuck donald trump”, “don’t grab my pussy”, “love trumps hate”, “women’s rights are human rights”, “not my président” as they marched up to trump towers with these brazen words of freedom as their weapons. Marching up the avenue of the state to which trump belongs, trump’s home where he is most scorned and disliked. It was moment of reckoning for my somber mood since this morning’s bad news.  A sense of pride swelling up inside as I joined them. 

But the opposite occurred in my daughter’s school. Young voices silenced, tears speaking where voices should’ve been singing. Kids spilling tears all day today instead of preparing for their future for fear their parents get deported. The principal had to send letters to parents urging them to get counseling and at the same time apologizing “Hollande style” for not being able to chose who the president is. 

What a world we live in! What’s become of this great free nation we call ‘America’? Barely one day old and so many tears, discontentment and demonstrations across the country – NY, Oregon, LA etc – from the young and old alike on the streets and classrooms of our nation.

Which president, in the history of this country that leads the world in freedom, and by example, has ever been so disliked that hate has preceded even before his rule begins? 


Silence & regress commence their race 

Alas! Words fail!

Nation under siege of Otherization and Gender

While past presidential elections have focused on issues like economy, LGBT, community, national security, Health, lowering the deficit, or position on wars, this one has been about insults and ugly revelations. It has been one after another horrific revelation of racism, sexual assault, immigration, elitism, anti Semitism, authoritarianism and “promiscuous xenophobia” to use a Cornel West term. All of these backward notions we so willingly heap on “Third Worlds’ are found right here in USA in 2016, coming from a potential president. Trump is fast Otherizing, unhinging and unfiltering culture.  He is talking about belonging quite a lot: who should be included in our nation, and who shouldn’t. The birther effect is now jumping on Muslims, Mexicans etc.

The more this ‘not belonging” comes up in Trump talks the more it becomes clear that it is a conversation overdue – he’s been campaigning and spewing such hate for almost a year now. Perhaps we should give it a platform, like we’ve had to do with black lives matter.  We must take stock of divisive ideologies that exclude some more in the lines of like some of Trump’s supporters who are wisely jumping over the fence in the direction of progress to the Hillary camp. Yet some remain tone deaf and aren’t budging form Trump’s exclusionary ideology.  Joel Stein quips that there’s got to be a reason for this  and cites non-college-educated White men as the reason; they are losing power, have no faith in government, corporations or media and view others  as dismantling white European culture [Time October 31, 3016]. This election has mobilized and empowered not only these white supremacists, but misogynists, too.

Trump’s Access Hollywood tapes were sat on for 11 years while he had thousands of employees for decades but none thought it needful to protect half his workforce. It was more important to ensure the success of Apprentice than to protect women. And voting Trump condones the way some men [even women] talk to and about women: the message is that it’s okay to touch women the way he does.  But Trump isn’t the first to think of women demeaningly or see them only as sexual objects for his grabbing. This talk and behavior are as old as time, and women have been coming forward for years, but haven’t been believed.  Despite Anita Hill’s watershed moment in 1991 for sexual harassment awareness which increased reports of sexual harassment from 3,349 to 5,607 one year after [Time October 31, 2016: 34]. Despite other noteworthy women including Paula Jones against Bill Clinton in 1994 which was dropped; Beth Ann Faragher in 1998 which went to the supreme court that held employers liable if they create a hostile environment for women in the workplace; Anucha Browne Sanders against Isaiah Thomas / NY Knicks in 2007; Gretchen Carlson against Roger Ailes / Fox News in 2016, and Nancy O’Dell against Trump in 2016.

And despite America’s amazing inroads into equality for women, America is not ready for a woman. The timely FBI ‘male’ leaks about Hillary and other poisonous rhetoric against a woman running for president proves it.  In this era of intense profiling and racism, we’ve had a black president for two terms, and despite the ‘non-belonging’ birther controversy started by Trump, and Otherizing Obama that still didn’t stop him from winning favor with the Americans. But Hillary hasn’t even won the presidency yet, but the threat of disrespectful, women-fearing, women-hating men looms so large that she has already been threatened with being killed off, called vulgar names by Texan agric commissioner and all sorts of violence via Trump’s preferred means of communication: social media.

America is not okay with having a woman president in 2016!  In an age where sexual harassment has gone from a whisper to a roar – campuses, military, social media platforms – America isn’t ready to seat a woman in the Whitehouse. An India our USA is not! A Pakistan our USA is not! A Liberia or Bangladesh or Brazil our USA is not! And it’s not just about groping! There’s absolutely no room for behavior that disrespects and tries to silence women, and we cannot let Trump continue to believe that he can price his way out of xenophobia, racism or sexism!


We are our own allies to trump differences

The recent American loss with the Trump win has become a personal loss for women. It has become difficult for women – Muslim women, black women, white women etc – to feel safe walking down the same streets where their neighbors and family have supported a man who tells the world that sexual assault, hating the Other, and misogyny are okay. His win has made my female students and I feel unsafe, uncomfortable and un-belonging suddenly, even in a progressive city like New York.

Women and men have been writing letters to, and calling on, their politicians to act, they have been speaking up, signing petitions, supporting and even funding planned parenthoods, posting post-its on walls of resistance, holding vigils, marching and protesting – day and night – and putting their bodies on the line since the elections on Fifth Avenue where the Trump tower is located, in LA, Chicago, Seattle [where there’s a sanctuary for women, immigrants etc], and in other countries like France and elsewhere for American democracy and rights for everyone.

Two women, Nadja Spiegelman and Françoise Mouly, have decided to launch a magazine called RESIST!  whose first appearance will coincide with the inauguration on January 20th 2017 in Washington . Mouly and Spiegelman have asked women to make their voices heard by publishing their art and articles, which will appear in the first edition of this magazine on January 21, 2017. The turnout has been stupendous, which proves that there is a need for a medium for these voices.

But, another woman, Italian Francesca Comencini[1], mother, political organizer, screenwriter and filmmaker has another idea on how we could resist. According to Ariel Levy in “When in Rome, the Women” The New Yorker November 28, 2016 Comencini points out Trump’s and Berlusconi’s commonalities, which others have done in the past, but she does it for a different reason: to show that it is possible for change to occur in American government. This is quite an interesting parallel to consider that she is making, especially for those who feel hopeless and/or naysayers since both Trump and Berlusconi are so very similar. According to Comencini, both Trump and Berlusconi have amassed fortunes in real estate through questionable business practices; both share a taste for marble, extreme tans and strongmen: Trump is impressed with Putin and Berlusconi with Muammar Qaddafi; both have a murky grasp on ‘consent’; and both are skilled manipulators of social media.

But what differentiates Comencini’s from others in comparing Trump and Berlusconi is her optimism.  She compares both of these men in power to suggest that Berlusconi and Trump could have yet another thing in common: a downfall catalyzed by women. Berlusconi said in 2009 that they don’t have enough soldiers to stop rape in Italy, because their women are so beautiful and Trump said grabbing women by the pussy is cool, it is what men do. Trump says that Hillary would not be his ‘first choice’ because he wasn’t impressed by her behind, and Berlusconi said that Angela Merkel was “unfuckable’. They both share a very foucauldian and fallible view of politics, one where sexuality seems to be a very important aspect of their politics. But Trump however, may tip the scales since he has probably outdone Berlusconi in signing women’s chests [in Virginia], in addition to the many women who came out after Access Hollywood to tell the word Trump had sexually abused, groped them etc.

The other similarity I see in Comencini’s article is our million women march coming up on January 20th. Italy’s one million people march organized by Comencini – Se Non Ora, Quando [If Not Now, When] – held demonstrations in Italy causing Berlusconi to resign 9 months after. Women in the Piazza del Popolo held a ‘group scream’ so women could live in dignity, and they even enlisted an Italian actress – Angela Finochiaro – to make a video appeal to the nation’s men asking them to ‘tell the world you don’t want to live in a bad fifties movie” while framing sexism and misogyny not just as wrong, but ‘lame’.

Comencini advises women in America to NOT make something ‘against’ Trump, but to communicate the idea that ‘we are the nation’, and that its strength is in women. Berlusconi held power for 2 decades and made many kinds of things normal which are not, and considering that Trump hasn’t even occupied the white house yet,  there’s hope. Things that he’s been putting forth have not yet become normal as with Berlusconi.

We have to believe that same sex love, women’s safety and freedom should be a step up from the past 50 and more years. We have to believe we could live in a world where our girls could achieve anything without limit, and we have to see the world that does NOT recommend corrective rape for uppity women or women who have a voice.

The Trump win is not just the loss of a male sense of self, but a conflict between patriarchy and feminism and the divide has been increasing with the Trump pick of white male nationalists. And sadly there is no first lady with a voice to speak for her gender or the condition of women like Michelle Obama, who launched platforms for bringing back our girls – in Nigeria and elsewhere – or educating mothers in America. And the first daughter, who is headed to replace the first-lady does not have an agenda for women or for those on whom her father has stomped. Her “advocacy of women’ goes only so far as her clothing line.

We therefore are our only hope. We need allies in each other, not complicity from some women who voted trump as their savior. We have to stop taking it for granted that we have a voice as we have been doing in the last eight and more years, and value ourselves beyond that superficial beauty that some men heap on us. Now more than never we need to use our voices and make them as loud as possible before the country turns back to not just time or 2016, but turns back the hands of time to oppression, anti-semitism, anti- culturalism, and becomes anti women.


Uneasy & colorful hybrid “Bazodee”

Bazodee is a musical saga of love, which tells the story of Anita Panchourie, a  young Trinidadian woman, who is about to be married to Bharat Kumar,  a London educated man from a wealthy Indian family. But their marriage plans sour when she’s captured on social media “wining” [gyrating] on a calypsonian, Lee de Leon. Their budding feelings for each other make them both ‘bazodee’, thus the movie’s name.


Bazodee‘ is both a state of being [noun] and how you are [adjective]: you can become bazodee or go bazodee over someone or something [in love or in anger] and you can have bazodee, like a malady. the term comes from créole ‘bazourdi’, which comes from the french ‘abasourdi’ or the english stunned or dumbstruck. And by the time it reached Trinidad it became bazodee. The film Bazodee now playing at AMC and Pavilion theatres in NY, describes all of these feelings.

The story of Bazodee is much the same as any Hindi movie: a women or man torn between duty and desire- duty to please parents, and desire to follow one’s heart. It also has the father who falls into patriarchal rage when he finds out his dutiful daughter has an affair with a calypsonian. It follows the same Bollywood formula of song and dance, which helps develop the narrative in Hindi cinema – but the movie debunks Bollywood in many ways:

1. The film tells a woman’s story, not a man’s:  Anita is the heroine and it is Lee who revolves around her, as well as the many other male characters: Bharat ; the father ; Nikhil and the other male characters dependent on Lee who’s dependent on Anita. In India’s film industry, aside from Priyanka Chopra and perhaps Madhuri Dixit once upon time [1990s] – roles are written for male stars, and women are created around the male leads. Perera was intrigued by playing in a leading, non stereotypical, and complex role  as it is not often that you see an Asian female in the lead role from India or the Caribbean. Other than that Bollywood is very much a male dominated industry. Interestingly enough, when Indians came to Trinidad in 1834, it was the women who perpetuated and sustained Indian culture in the new island, via tan singing which evolved into chutney, which evolved into so many genres, and finally there is chutney soca, which we see Anita and Lee perform in Bazodee. Anita falls in love with a Trinidadian man of non-indian descent, and not the rich Indian à la Bollywood.

2. Anita’s the darkie – the untouchable – and both Bharat and Lee are the ones who are “wheatish” and “fair” – qualities that Indian parents always ask for in brides-to-be in their many-tentacled matrimonial sites and in Bollyworld. And if the actress is dark she’s lightened up to look wheatish or fair onscreen. But Anita is ‘dark and lovely’, as Nandita Das would say; she’s smooth-skinned, like dark chocolate with chipotle. Anita is the proud Nina Davuluri of Triniwood.

3. Anita’s the one who has a fling with another man, and we know this since the story is being told from her eyes. She gets what she wants and whom she wants. While that may happen in Bollywood especially these days when some roles being written for ‘strong’ women, these same roles are usually re-inscribed into patriarchy at the end of the film. The difference between Bazodee and a Bollywood film is that the man whom Anita chooses is NOT Indian, and he’s neither black nor ‘red’ nor ‘coco pagnol’ [local Spanish], and on top of all that he’s a Rastafarian. India won’t accept interracial relationships easily, only white: they already have huge problems with untouchables and dalits, usually dark of skin, like Anita. And certainly not a darkie and non-indian as we see in Bazodee.  Anita rejects riches, religion, caste and chooses a Dougla [Black and Indian mix] who’s not rich, not of the same caste nor race as her. But that’s the cosmopolitan society in Trinidad – one which produces a whole lot of in-between folks like Lee, and then some: black Chinese, ‘Reds’, Douglas etc. That won’t happen in India or Bollywood – a quick look at this video and you will see Indians, Blacks and in-between folks dancing together.


  1. The sorority in the film is also non-Bollywood. She is surrounded by Poorvi whom she looks out for, and Lalima, who looks out for her. They protect each other and stand by each other even when Poorvi moves to London and Anita stays back in Trinidad when her wedding is canceled
  1. This ‘mixing’ – the chutney flavor [which Bollywood calls ‘masala’ in food and films] of the movie – is also reflected in the music, which the movie brings out crystal clearly with chutney-soca makeovers like Bollywood’s app jaisa koi mere beautifully rendered by Lee, a non-Indian and Anita, who both sing in both Hindi and Trinidadian dialect in the same breath, and in fact it is the music that draws them together. She ‘feels’ his music. It’s as though he was born out of her song if we follow the plot chronologically, the same way Ruby Sparks was born out of a novelist’s pen.  The movie opens on Anita signing so beautifully ‘I forget” without music in her room while getting ready to go fetch her fiancé at the airport. Then the next scene jumps to the airport where Lee is languidly humming the same tune on his ukelele. He’s in dire need of inspiration, and Anita brings him back to life, but on her terms. Their relationship is born- not from caste or class or educational level [again à la Bollywood]- but from love of song and music. The chutney we hear in Lee’s songs has Indian, English and local dialects and flavors, with a calypso beat. If Indians didn’t participate in carnival before, today, it is often Indians who are the best panmen, and blacks beat dhols in tassa groups as good as any Indian, and both the Indian and African diasporas dance and celebrate side by side the rich culture in Trinidad & Tobago. The video at the end shows all the mixings in Machel’s performance of “I forget”
  2. Acculturation and transculturation in the Indian diaspora of Trinidad to which we are privy in the movie is exactly the way I saw it growing up. Trinidadians celebrate each other’s holy days – Christmas, Eid, Diwali, and Easter. Coming from a Hindu family, my Hindu mother made the same foods the Muslims and Christians made to observe their holy days. A brief history of Trinidad explains its cosmopolitan nature: according to a panel on east indians in the Caribbean []. French, Spanish, Portuguese and British came to Trinidad. Africans came in late 18 century with their British masters, Chinese came in 1806 from the Guangdong province, especially the Hakka people, and Indians in 1845, after slavery was abolished in 1838, and as indentured laborers [1845- 1917]. The Indians came first from Calcutta then Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Oudh, Chennai, West Bengal, Punjab etc …The women were Dalits mostly, and intermixing was prevented by Brits to keep blacks and Indians separate. But if slavery separated families then, now they all intermixed and married producing all kinds of mixes. The engagement party and the end of the film in the beach scene very much exemplify this mixing of people and music and the Trini spirit.
  3. The crew and cast are very multicultural, much like the island people of Trinidad and Tobago, and a cast that is not found in a Bollywood production. Starting with the script by the Bajan Claire Ince and produced by Ancil Mckain/Tobagonian, Steven Brown/ American [Dazed and Confused 1993, Grosse Pointe Bank 1997 and Wild Things 1998], Susana Bohnet of Cinemedia/Germany which funds and acquires rights for US films [What Women Want – Nancy Meyers 2000], and Lorraine O’Connor/Trinidadian and cultural activist/producer/promoter of Triniadad & Tobago culture. Ince and McKain both wanted the film to be global, and got Todd Kessler on board – the 7 time Emmy nominated American of the Game of ThronesBlue’s Clues fame, and whose artistic work Malcolm Gladwell describes as ‘visionary and new world’ in Tipping Point []. Kessler called the movie “Triniwood”, a much more real and less glossy style than Bollywood. The cinematographer is Imre Juhasz/Hungarian, whose work from 1998 to the present number 37 short, TV and feature films according to IMDB. The actors also come from everywhere:
  • the lead role is essayed by a female: Natalie Perera, a British born, Sri Lankan girl in the role of Anita
  • Staz Nair  is Russian/Indian living in London who is Qhono in Game of Thrones; he plays Bharat, Anita’s fiancé
  • Machel Montano who needs no introduction in the Caribbean. Suffice it to say however, that he’s THE soca warrior in the mecca of soca, Trinidad & Tobago, and plays Lee
  • Anita’s father is Kabir Bedi, who also needs no introduction in India [list too long to mention here] and even America [Octupussy] and plays Ram
  • Cindy Daniel is Trinidadian, of mixed heritage plays Lalima
  • Teneille Newallo, Trinidadian, but also of mixed heritage, is Anita’s cousin and confidante, Poorvi Panchouri
  • Valmike Rampersad as Nikhil – the bad guy – who was born in Trinidad, but lives in the UK, and whose parents still live in Trinidad.

Bazodee is not about race, but races are needed to explain how Trinidad got to its acculturation and transculturation. Living in the USA, race makes you hyerpaware of who you are. Had I not left Trinidad race wouldn’t have been what it is now, but in America, you never walk that road [race] twice if you’ve walked it, and been stung or shot for being a different race. Bazodee is about races, but much more than race – the positive side of race. It is about living, and letting live as different races, creeds and classes come together which Montano calls ‘douglarization’ in an interview – and which is epitomized in Lalima’s make-up: she’s Indian, African, Venezuelan and Other. As the national anthem of Trinidad & Tobago says: “let every creed and race find an equal place, and may God bless our nation”.



Thought-provoking cinema on gender selection & rape

In Satyamev Jayate we learn – for those of us who didn’t know, including me – that finding out the sex of your child is illegal in all of India. I know that girls are not favored over boys in some parts of India, but I didn’t know that sex determination technologies are illegal: cell-free fetal DNA testing, chorionic villus sampling, amniocentesis or ultrasonography . In other countries, we take for granted and have the option to know the sex of our baby to prepare for his or her arrival: clothes, friends’ and family’s gifts via baby shower etc. And in Trinidad, with a 50 percent majority Indo-Muslim population – from India – that isn’t practiced; there is no law banning knowing the sex of your child. Whether it is a girl or boy the child is welcomed, and parents joke often that ‘once the child has 10 toes, and 10 fingers’ they are happy. That is not to say that boys aren’t shown or given more attention, but girls aren’t killed off or regretted. Nor are daughters walking price tags if they live. It comes as a big surprise then that in this 21st century, this IS a law elsewhere.

Why would there a need for such law?

In rural parts of India – Maharashtra, Haryana, Jammu, Kashmir etc [Child Sex Ratio in India], female foeticide had become a huge problem. That’s not to say that in other urban parts of India or its diasporas that sons aren’t preferred over daughters nor that it was/is not a problem. But female foeticide had to be banned in 1994 in India.  The Pre-conception and Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques (Prohibition of Sex Selection) Act law was only passed 22 years ago, but men and women had been killing fetuses in parts of India forever upon discovering that the child was a girl.  Matrubhoomi: Nation without Women [Manish Jha, 2003] is a stark exploration of this phenomenon.  In the film, female infanticide causes an entire village to be without females, and one father, brave enough to not kill his daughter – Kalki – raises her in hiding, learns to disguise her as a boy until she reaches puberty and can’t look like a boy anymore. But Kalki is discovered and married off for money to a young man who shares her with all of his brothers and single father – the subtext of the the film is Draupadi and the 5 Pandava brothers story in the Mahabharata, which is sacred for Hindus, but which the director also asks us to reflect on. The entire village in the film lusts after Kalki, and rapes her. It is brutally visual, and at times so repugnant that you must turn away from the screen, like a Gaspar Noe’s film with 15 minutes of brutal rape [Irreversible, 2002]. The sexual exploitation and subjugation of Kalki are far from entertaining, and forces us to watch unflinchingly at this barbaric socio-cultural gender discrimination. I cannot include a trailer, for the reality of this problem and the scenes of this film are too visually sickening: there isn’t one single redeeming moment in the film, and no saving grace for girls raped or killed off just because of their gender.

Nine years later, in 2012 Aamir Khan brought to light this issue of female foeticide in Satyamev Jayate because it has not disappeared with a 1994 law. This episode informed us of the reality of the act of pre-natal gender detection followed by foeticide cutting across class and cities, and we saw how mothers today, who want to keep their female child alive face torture and abuse at the hands of their families and others []. We also see how doctors blatantly flout the Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Determination Techniques (PCPNDT) Act for monetary gains [].

In 2014, a short film Anamika: a short film dedicated to Women [Mahesh Madhu, 2014] shows the husband wanting a girl, but his wife, Anamika doesn’t. But she doesn’t want a girl for a very different reason. A reason that probably wasn’t considered at all into the making or enacting of the Prohibition of sex-selection law in 1994.

Anamika might not have been killed off as a foetus, but lived only to be raped as a child. She reaches adulthood and is having a baby, but wants to have a boy like a lot of first time traditional mothers in India and other traditional male dominated societies. But she only wants a boy because she thinks that uncles can’t rape boys; they can only rape girls. We see this not only in this film and Matrubhoomi, but also in Monsoon Wedding [Mira Nair, 2001]. And like Anamika, Ria in Monsoon Wedding grows up also keeping the silence of her rape, also by a close uncle. And although Naseeruddin Shah saves the film and day by cutting ties with his molester-brother over this sexual abuse scandal, a woman in the wedding party wonders why the scuttle over such a “small” matter [as sexual abuse]. Thankfully, this is a powerful subplot among all the festivities taking place in the film. But what is salient in the two films and in the two girls is that neither Ria nor Anamika told anyone they were raped as girls, because of women like this woman at the party. Sexual abuse is a shame only for the girl abused, and never for the males who rape. No one would believe the girls if they spoke, including doctors, police and often even their own families. Anamika – powerless then to do anything – does the only thing she could do-she wants to stop that cycle of silence and rape, because she believes that having a girl would repeat history, and the cycle of rape would continue. But, Anamika is trapped by laws: the anti-abortion laws set in place in 1971, and the Prohibition of sex-selection law in 1994. The film shows this ‘hopeless trap’ in which she finds herself not because the film’s intention is to break the law, or is advocating foeticide as in Matrubhoomi, but the real intent is for Anamika to prepare mentally like we do in the US, except that it will take more than a village to protect this girl from sexual predators.

Sex-selective abortion and rape are huge problems and a big crime, both of which we must fight with images and words since laws fail. Dowries drain families of monies they don’t have to marry their daughters so they prize sons instead. But even educated families would abort girls if they could according to one study of an Indian health care group Mamta Health Institute for Mother and Child[Little India Vanishing Land of the Girl July 2006]. And even though a law had already been passed some couples would pay $450.00 to find out the sex of their child, and others would stay inside the house to hide their pregnancies until they knew it was a boy [Little India Vanishing Land of the Girl July 2006]. The sex selection was so uneven in Punjab that the government pays families $11.20 a month for a girl in school [Little India Vanishing Land of the Girl July 2006] to encourage them not to get rid of girls but also to educate them. By taking initiative to make shorts on Pocket Films and Youtube etc young women and men are opening up dialogue to raise awareness because cinema – and social media – is an extremely powerful medium. Films can help change the way we see and look at something by evoking anger, rage, antipathy, disgust, revulsion, driving us to tears and the desire to act and do more than just view passively. Both self-made and commercial directors know that they have to become agents of change before Mother India ends up a mother to only sons, and not daughters, as Aamir Khan rightly suggests. They must continue making shorts, films and using social media because they know that cinema is a temple of desire, and by the same token, it can also provoke desire in people to act, to against women’s silence, against women’s abuse, and for women’s human rights. They know that if women are denied speech their experience cannot be known, their questions cannot be asked nor answered, and they cannot influence the course of their lives, nor of history.